20. Protection in respect of conviction for offences
(1) No person shall be convicted of any offence except for violation of the law in force at the time of the commission of the act charged as an offence, nor be subjected to a penalty greater than that which might have been inflicted under the law in force at the time of the commission of the offence
(2) No person shall be prosecuted and punished for the same offence more than once
(3) No person accused of any offence shall be compelled to be a witness against himself
Article 20(2) : It is protection against Double Jeopardy in Criminal cases.
For a similar relief in Civil Cases, the principle of ‘Res Judicita‘ has to be invoked instead of Double Jeopardy, as Civil cases only involve Damages and compensation and not penal punishments as in Criminal Cases.
Shades of Knife
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